Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD) </strong>is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an online-only journal; subscribers may download or print any articles in accordance with the Creative Commons BY license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 License" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> The SNAP Challenge: Communicating Food Security Capabilities through Anti-Hunger Advocacy http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/580 This research brief reports preliminary findings related to the SNAP Challenge (SC), an anti-hunger initiative in which participants purchase their household groceries using the average food stamp budget benefit for one week. By simulating a SNAP budget, SC participants encounter food insecurity directly, recognizing how the food they are able to consume connects to income, nutrition needs, and other factors that contribute to quality of life, all of which can be considered capabilities of food security. Linking the experience of food hardship to conditions of poverty can address not only immediate food needs but also the interconnected material opportunities and disparities that constitute food (in)security. In this way, I suggest, a capability approach to food security can better align anti-hunger advocacy and food system policy. This initial study supports ongoing research related to anti-hunger advocacy communication, food security discourse, and capability-based approaches to food system reform. Kathleen P. Hunt ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 8 2 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.007 Taking on the C-word http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/575 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p><p>What role does love play in challenging the devastating impacts of capitalism on our food system? What role does hope play? For Holt-Giménez, the author of <em>A Foodie’s Guide to Capital­ism,</em> both love and hope are essential in building a more just and sustainable world, and his newest book is inspired by his long career of allying with those “for whom giving up was not an option” (p. 240). Concluding a treatise on understanding the inner workings and history of capitalism with a call for love and hope might seem trite at first glance. And yet, this is perhaps the best indication of the narrowness and cynicism that often dominate the thinking of those of us who consider ourselves food activists. Another world is indeed possible, and Holt-Giménez gives us the tools we need to better understand the ways that capitalism—and racism—and sexism—and classism—stand in the way of that world. This is the kind of intersectional analysis that we need in the face of climate change, the plundering and privatization of our natural resources, and the ongoing attacks on democracy and progressive politics. <em>A Foodie’s Guide to Capitalism</em> allows the reader to understand how these kinds of wicked problems are interrelated with the ways that food is grown, distributed, consumed, and wasted...</p> Teresa M. Mares ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-08 2018-05-08 8 2 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.002 A Primer on Local Food Systems http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/577 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p><p>Jennifer Robinson and James Farmer’s <em>Selling Local: Why Local Food Movements Matter </em>consoli­dates decades of research on the local food move­ment, drawing attention to the array of local food developments in the U.S. Midwest and Appalachia regions. The authors provide a narrative that weaves together voices from various stakeholders, taking the reader from farmers markets to community supported agriculture (CSA) to food hubs, while providing a scholarly analysis of the diverse capacities and limitations of these enterprises as well as offering a framework for assessing local food initiatives.</p><p class="JBodyText">The title and content page hint at the under­lying purpose of this book, which is to support the local food movement by identifying strengths, weaknesses, and leverage points that may be tap­ped to improve the capacity and success of diverse initiatives—all of which are necessary and impor­tant endeavors for cultivating and expanding local food systems....</p> Amber A. Heckelman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-08 2018-05-08 8 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.003 Do Affluent Urban Consumers Drive Direct Food Sales in the Northeast United States? A Three-part Analysis http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/578 The last century has seen steady decline in the number of farms and ever-worsening concentra­tion of economic power in the food system. In more recent decades, agricultural sales directly to consumers have grown, raising questions about the role of economic privilege and its spatial distribu­tion in supporting direct marketing. We address this question in a three-part analysis of 216 counties in nine Northeast states. First, we com­pare four direct-sales indicators and their common covariates among county types defined by metro­politan status and adjacency to metro/nonmetro borders. Second, we map four direct-sales variables over these county types. Third, we construct panel regression models with county as a fixed-effect in order to examine the influence of county-level household income on direct agricultural sales while controlling for other county-level variables shown to have an influence: population, vegetable produc­tion, farm size, and number of farms. Together, these three perspectives—bivariate, spatial, and multivariate—show that economic privilege is a factor in direct food sales, but not necessarily a driver. The variability across the region and the different patterns associated with different direct-marketing variables indicate that both researchers and practitioners would benefit from strategies sensitive to context, contingency, and change over time. Amy Guptill David A. Larsen Rick Welsh Erin Kelly ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-08 2018-05-08 8 2 1 14 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.005 A Farm Bill for the Agriculture We Want http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/576 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p><p class="JBodyText">The United States farm bill expires in 2018 and is scheduled to be replaced by new legislation approved by the U.S. Congress and implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA has already announced its farm bill prefer­ences and the legislative principles it hopes will guide the 2018 legislative process (USDA, 2018). Its policy agenda for 2018 seems to be pretty much the same as those for past farm bills—at least for those over the past 50 years. Regardless of whether we like what we have been getting, the USDA apparently plans to give us more of the same.</p><p>“We can have any kind of agriculture we want, if we choose the right agricultural policies.” This was a frequent statement of Harold Breimyer, one of the most respected agricultural economists in the U.S. during the last half of the 20th century. He was my professional mentor in that he was an unabashed advocate of traditional family farming. He also continued to be active professionally for as long as he lived—17 years after retiring from the University of Missouri.</p> John Ikerd ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-08 2018-05-08 8 2 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.001 IN THIS ISSUE: Fostering Access to Local Food Data http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/574 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p><p class="JBodyText">Our cover for this issue depicts the growing adaptation of statistical, infographic, and geographic information systems tools to local food system data. As a city and regional planning student with a specialty in food systems back in the mid-1980s, I could only have dreamed of such technology. We had Excel, of course, and I made the most of its charting tools, but nothing tells a story like a 3D color-coded data map!</p><p>At JAFSCD, we like to think we are fostering access to local food data. Every year we see new applications of the burgeoning technology available. Frankly, it is comforting to think that visual displays of information like the one on this issue’s cover provide not only a means for experts to discover new spatial information, but also for sharing information with lay people and allowing them to identify and contribute critical insights as well. After all, a picture is worth a thousand words; most of us are visual learners. In the not-too-distant future, we will be asking JAFSCD authors to make their data available for use by other researchers and practitioners for the benefit of the greater good—as part of our new open access, community-supported journal model....</p> Duncan Hilchey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-09 2018-04-09 8 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.081.017 An Evaluation of Current Lunchroom Food Waste and Food Rescue Programs in a Washington State School District http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/573 <p class="JBodyText">Public schools waste approximately 30% to 50% of edible food and thus provide opportunities to study the problem of food waste and explore food rescue initiatives. This case study evaluates lunch­room waste sorting and food waste diversion prac­tices in a Washington State school district. It pro­vides a comprehensive analysis including descrip­tive characteristics and comparative statistical analyses to determine the types and amount of edible, wasted food and the potential to reduce or recover this wasted food. Waste audits were performed at 18 schools to quantify the amount and type of waste generated at each school. Audits consisted of weighing, sorting, and recording the pre and post-sort weights of all lunchroom com­post, recycling, and trash. Edible, rescuable food items were removed from bags and counted separately. Lunchroom-specific observational data, including lunchroom layout and implementation of food rescue programs, were also recorded. Statistical analysis evaluated the effect of these programs on lunchroom waste sorting. Data revealed significantly higher post-sort compost rates than pre-sort rates and significantly lower post-sort trash rates than pre-sort rates. Pre- and post-sort recycling rates were not significantly different. This suggests that a significant amount of trash could be diverted from landfills with imple­mentation of a lunchroom composting system. Additionally, participation in sustainability initia­tives, such as a county-wide resource conservation program, and use of lunchroom monitors affected waste sorting. Further, audits uncovered a large amount of wasted, edible food. This type of food could potentially be diverted to feeding students or community members experiencing food insecurity by means of food rescue programs, such as lunch­room food share programs or school-to-food-bank donation services. Overall, this study identified potential points for food waste reduction strategies in public school lunchrooms.</p> Courtney L. Schupp Katherine M. Getts Jennifer J. Otten ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-05 2018-04-05 8 2 167 186 10.5304/jafscd.2018.081.013 Agritourism: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Industry Analysis http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/572 <p>Visiting farms and ranches to experience agricul­ture and celebrate harvests is an age-old tradition. In the U.S. and many other countries, this tradition is the basis of an emerging industry known as “agritourism.” Although agritourism appears to be growing in many parts of the U.S., confusion about agritourism limits the ability of researchers and agricultural interests to fully understand this sector’s economic importance and to support its performance over time. A universal understanding of agritourism is needed for clear communication, reliable and consistent measurement, informed policies, and programs that support farms and ranches and their communities. To that end, the authors present a conceptual framework that incor­porates core and peripheral tiers, as well as five categories of activities, including direct sales, edu­cation, hospitality, outdoor recreation, and enter­tainment. The goal of this viewpoint is to stimulate commentary and debate that furthers our collective understanding of agritourism as it becomes an increasingly important industry in the U.S.</p><p>COMMENTS AND FEEDBACK on this proposed framework are welcome at JAFSCD's <a title="JAFSCD Facebook page" href="https://www.facebook.com/jafscd" target="_blank">Facebook page</a>!</p> Lisa C. Chase Mary Stewart Brian Schilling Becky Smith Michelle Walk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-02 2018-04-02 8 2 13 19 10.5304/jafscd.2018.081.016 Strategies for Creating Equitable Urban Greenspace in Global Cities http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/570 <p class="JBodyText">Increasing attention, globally, is being paid to the creation of “green” urban space as a strategy for mitigating and adapting to climate change—as cities account for more than 70 percent of green­house gas emissions. While cities are major con­tributors to climate change, they can also be pri­mary drivers in the direction of positive change, since they hold authority over key climate-related policies, such as those concerning land use zoning and industrial emissions. In that light, as many cities take up the task of developing green urban infrastructure—including promoting and support­ing urban food systems—it is critical to understand how to enact these changes equitably, so that all urban residents benefit from sustainability initia­tives. Because cities will be most affected by food supply and distribution problems caused by climate change, their support of robust, diverse, and sus­tainable urban food production can be of major significance in an era of climate uncertainty.</p><em>Just Green Enough: Urban Development and Environmental Gentrification </em>provides an important intervention by offering actors involved in miti­gating urban climate change a guidebook of strate­gies for equitable green development. It<em> </em>speaks broadly about the topic of urban greening, primar­ily focusing on issues caused by environmental hazards in the built environment. Several chapters touch specifically on urban food production and distribution. While many of the tactics offered for equitable development are geared toward those focused on environmental remediation, urban plan­ners, activists, and community members working specifically in urban food systems will find the strategies easily applicable to their own work. Chhaya Kolavalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-29 2018-03-29 8 2 193 195 10.5304/jafscd.2018.081.014 An In-Depth Look at the Coalition of Immokalee Workers http://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/571 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p><p>If you ask the average person what they know about the people who labor on farms in the United States, you are likely to find that they have never given it much thought, or that if they have, they answer based on their notions of the agrarian ideal. Maybe, just maybe, you would find that they have some basic sense of the atrocities that most of the over two million farmworkers who harvest our food face. If they heard of these issues recently, they may have learned about them through the campaigns of the Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW). Whether through its community organizing efforts on college campuses; its work boycotting of some of the nation’s largest fast food chains; through the documentary <em>Food Chains</em> (Longoria, Schlosser, &amp; Rawal, 2014); or its other educational, outreach, and campaign work, the CIW and its other entities have become a recognized name in farmworker justice. In <em>I Am Not a Tractor! How Florida Farmworkers Took on the Fast Food Giants and Won, </em>Susan L. Marquis details the history of CIW and of its Fair Food Program (FFP), as well as its possibilities for the future. I approached this book as someone who has been working with various farmworker and farmer justice groups for the past decade in my own teaching and research; although I have never worked directly with CIW in these or any other capacities, I was certainly familiar with their work.</p> Becca Berkey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-29 2018-03-29 8 2 197 199 10.5304/jafscd.2018.081.015