Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2021-09-16T19:57:36-07:00 Publisher and Editor in Chief: Duncan Hilchey Open Journal Systems <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> An examination of adaptations of direct marketing channels and practices by Maryland fruit and vegetable farmers during the COVID-19 pandemic 2021-09-16T19:57:36-07:00 Grace Bachman Sara Lupolt Mariya Strauss Ryan Kennedy Keeve Nachman <p>This study explores the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Maryland stay-at-home order on fruit and vegetable farmers in Maryland. Focusing on farms’ direct-to-consumer marketing channels, we aim to characterize the diversity of farm responses and identify practices that facilitated adaptation. This research is grounded in the socio-ecological systems framework, which emphasizes the interconnection between social and ecological systems and characterizes the dual-driving forces that impact food producers and their livelihood. The study team conducted interviews with 20 Maryland farm owners/managers who grow and sell produce. The semistructured interviews includ­ed questions relating to production practices, sales and marketing, and resilience. The interviewer fol­lowed up with probes to understand the dimen­sions of response diversity and adaptive capacity. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and responses were analyzed using the framework approach. In the context of a global pandemic, community supported agriculture (CSA), farmers markets, and pick-your-own channels provided a high degree of stability and financial security. No farmer reported relying solely on intermediated markets (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores, institu­tions). Distribution channels that incorporated an online marketplace offering prepacked pre-orders were a notable strength of highly adaptive Mary­land produce farmers. Farmers reported that expanding established CSAs was an important method for reallocating produce originally intended to be sold to reduced/terminated marketing chan­nels. Common challenges among farmers included increased administrative workload, concerns asso­ciated with raising food prices during a crisis, and environmental concerns about the use of additional packaging. We describe a range of adaptive behav­iors that aided farmers in withstanding shocks.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors From seed to social agency 2021-09-16T06:09:20-07:00 Chelsea Klinke Gertrude Samar <p>Food studies is an emerging and interdisciplinary field that has produced abundant theoretical, analytical, and conceptual insights into contemporary agro-food system dynamics. However, space still exists for the convergence of classroom-based food pedagogy and transformative community work to promote social justice frameworks. While calling for a paradigm shift within educational systems, we ask, how can community-based experiential engagement in post-secondary food pedagogy enhance student learning, bridge academic-public divides, and foster transformative social change? Drawing from our experiences farming in Calgary, we argue that activist food studies employed with a learner-centered, place-based teaching approach centering Indigenous Knowledge Systems can support local food networks and build community within and beyond academia. We present strategies for bridging the academic-public divide through a participatory approach and activist scholarship that directly engages with sustainable urban and agrarian development. Complementing course-based theory and literature with applied methodologies that build the technical and leadership capacity of students will enhance student learning, build stronger community ties, and produce meaningful work that connects the local to the global. Furthermore, we will reflect upon our approach, identify potential benefits to students who engage in food studies, and offer recommendations for best practices in food pedagogy that will support social change.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors Re-energizing Japan's teikei movement 2021-09-15T21:16:46-07:00 Chika Kondo <p>In the 1960s-70s, Japan’s <em>teikei</em> movement, also referred to as Japanese community supported agriculture (CSA), emerged as a response to a period marred with multiple food scandals and environmental injustices and resulted in direct partnerships between consumers and organic farmers. Although this movement peaked in the 1990s just as the concept of alternative food networks (AFNs) gained popularity in western countries, little is known about what has happened to teikei today. This paper analyzes how teikei exemplifies diverse economies and explores how the possibilities of noncapitalist economic practice currently exist compared to the founding movement principles. Through case studies of two teikei groups in the Kansai region of Japan that transitioned their leadership to younger generations, I assess how changes made by current generations allow teikei to adapt to challenges that have long plagued the movement, such as the decline of volunteer labor provided by housewives. Drawing on a diverse economies approach, I argue that, despite current members’ detachment from strong activist identities, they sustain their organizations through part-time work, community building, and institutionalizing volunteer labor. The successes and struggles of current teikei groups provide insight into how AFNs seeking to build alternative economies can overcome difficulties that emerge from actualizing diverse economies.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chika Kondo Gardening for change 2021-09-15T20:58:29-07:00 Kathleen Tims Mark Haggerty John Jemison Melissa Ladenheim Sarah Mullis Elizabeth Damon <p>An estimated 5.3 million seniors in the United States are currently food insecure <a href="">(Ziliak &amp; Gunderson, 2020)</a>. Over the next few decades, these senior populations are projected to increase dramatically, which will only exacerbate this issue <a href="">(Mather &amp; Kilduff, 2020)</a>. Community giving gardens are an emerging strategy to increase food access and offer a solution to fight food insecurity locally (Chicago Community Gardeners Associa­tion, 2014; Furness &amp; Gallaher 2018; Sutphen, 2018). This research seeks to answer questions related to rural, senior food insecurity through a case study of a long-term community giving garden project in Orono, Maine. Based on survey data and personal interviews, this study analyzes senior participation in the Orono Community Garden (OCG) program, the impact on participants’ food security status, and senior participants’ perceptions of the experience. The results indicate that the OCG program functioned to increase food access by providing fresh food deliveries directly to senior households in need, alongside a constellation of local food assistance programs located in Orono. Participants also viewed the OCG program as a source of destigmatized and socially acceptable food access, in contrast to other food assistance programs. Community giving gardens, like the OCG program, can be an effective tool to combat senior food insecurity by providing nutritionally adequate, destigmatized food access while building local food economies.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kathleen Tims, Mark Haggerty, John Jemison, Melissa Ladenheim, Sarah Mullis, Elizabeth Damon Using common practices to establish a framework for mobile produce markets in the United States 2021-09-15T20:40:01-07:00 Christina Kasprzak Julia Schoonover Deanna Gallicchio Lindsey Haynes-Maslow Leah Vermont Alice Ammerman Samina Raja Laurene Tumiel-Berhalter Lucia Leone <p>Access to affordable fruit and vegetables (F&amp;V) remains a challenge within underserved communities across the United States. Mobile produce markets (mobile markets) are a well-accepted and effective strategy for increasing F&amp;V consumption in these communities. Mobile market organizations share similar missions that focus on food, health, and empowerment, participate in incentive programs, offer nutrition education, utilize grassroots-based marketing strategies, prioritize local produce, and sell competitively priced produce through a market style. While mobile markets have become increasingly prevalent, models vary widely. Establishing standardized practices is essential for ensuring the effectiveness and sustainability of this important food access program. This research seeks to identify common practices of established mobile markets and describe the resources they rely on.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Christina M. Kasprzak, Julia J. Schoonover, Deanna Gallicchio, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow, Leah N. Vermont, Alice Ammerman, Samina Raja, Laurene Tumiel-Berhalter, Lucia A. Leone COVID-19, food insecurity, and diet-related diseases 2021-09-15T20:20:36-07:00 J. Robin Moon Craig Willingham Shqipe Gjevukaj Nicholas Freudenberg <p>New York City was hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the immediate health burden was devastating, we posit that its long-term impact will be even greater, because the rapid spread of COVID-19 both depended on and exacerbated other deep-seated inequities related to food and broader living conditions. Using the Bronx as a case study, we explore the intersection of the pandemic with two other persistent problems: food insecurity and diet-related diseases, a constellation we label the COVID-Food Syndemic. Syndemic theory focuses on the common causes and biological and social interactions between two or more health problems. We hypothesize that with its focus on the common social causes of ill health, this approach can inform and strengthen the synergies between community-based, activist-driven solutions and municipal government responses, thus reducing the burden of ill health in the Bronx. We suggest that combining these two approaches can more fully mobilize the social changes that are needed in the food system and beyond to interrupt the fundamental drivers of this syndemic and capitalize on the respective strengths of government, civil society, and activists.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 J. Robin Moon, Craig Willingham, Shqipe Gjevukaj, Nicholas Freudenberg Reflections on the North Central Community Gardens Branch Out Project 2021-09-15T18:25:20-07:00 Maegan Krajewski <p>The North Central Community Gardens, an urban agriculture initiative of the North Central Community Association in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, introduced the Branch Out Project in the summer of 2020. The project’s purpose was to expand the North Central Community Gardens, which already consisted of three locations, onto additional schoolyard and backyard land. Despite—or perhaps because of—the COVID-19 pandemic, the first season of the project resulted in the construction of eight new gardens and has positively impacted food access, community engagement, and knowledge development and exchange. The goals of this commentary are two-fold: (1) to provide insight into the process of community garden expansion, with the hopes of benefiting other practitioners; and (2) to contribute to an understanding of the possibilities, challenges, and impacts of community gardens in general, and community garden expansion in particular, as a counter-neoliberal food sovereignty practice.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Maegan Krajewski Setting the table, not running it 2021-09-15T18:07:03-07:00 Karen Emmerman lauren Ornelas <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Food Empowerment Project (F.E.P.) is a vegan food justice nonprofit in northern California. We focus on making a more just and sustainable food system for <em>everyone</em> involved. Since injustice in the food system crosses the species barrier, we work to connect the dots between the exploitation of human and nonhuman animals. We focus our efforts on four main areas: ending the use of animals in the food system, improving access to healthy foods in Black, Brown, and low-income communities, exposing the worst forms of child labor (including slavery) in the chocolate industry, and advocating for farmworker rights. These seemingly disparate areas have much in common: they are interlocking forms of oppres­sion, marginalization, and domination in the food system. We recognize that the intersecting nature of oppression necessitates a nuanced response. For example, as an organization working on both farm­worker justice and food apartheid, we cannot advocate for lowering the price of food as this would negatively impact produce workers who already suffer grave systemic injustice. Instead, we advocate for equality of access and living wages for everyone.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>&nbsp;In this piece, we focus on our approach to the lack of access to healthy foods, and specifically our community-based efforts in Vallejo, California.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> Food Empowerment Project does not use the common term “food deserts” to describe areas impacted by lack of access to healthy foods. We prefer “food apartheid.” Deserts are naturally occurring phenomena. “Food apartheid” better captures the deliberate systemic, political, and racist origins of the food crisis faced in Black, Brown, Indigenous, and low-income communities.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Karen S. Emmerman, lauren Ornelas Recipes for resistance 2021-09-15T17:48:16-07:00 Cara Santino <p>In the United States, many people of color recently released from prison are likely to be food insecure. The intersections between race, food security, and release from prison are starting to be recognized. However, food justice should be informed by the perspectives and work being done by returning citizens and people of color. With the help of EMERGE CT, a transitional employment social enterprise for returning citizens in New Haven, Connecticut, I collected food access survey data and narratives of crewmembers at EMERGE to explore these issues. I merged restorative justice and food justice frame­works into one framework to develop an initiative that focuses on the availability of healthy, sustainable, and culturally appropriate food for returning citizens and addresses the social trauma that is perpetuated through both the food and prison systems. Further, I write about the importance of compensating food system leaders of color. I provide insight on the challenges in planning such a program. I discuss why we need to amplify the voices of returning citizens in food justice work. Lastly, I consider how these collaborative, cross-movement coalitions develop creative ways to re-envision equity.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cara Maria Santino How partnerships shaped the Dane CARES Farm-to-Food Bank program 2021-09-15T17:42:49-07:00 Jessica Guffey Calkins Claire Mance <p>The COVID-19 pandemic forced Wisconsin’s food systems institutions into rapid innovation as they responded to rising community food insecurity. With support from the Dane County Executive’s office, federal relief funding eased previously onerous barriers to allow Dane County’s largest food bank to implement a unique local purchasing program: Dane CARES. The program sought to support Dane County producers experiencing reductions in market opportunities, while feeding the rising number of Dane County families experiencing food hardship. Drawing on existing food and agriculture partner­ships, Extension Dane County staff connected partners to assist with project expedition and docu­mented partners’ efforts through a series of semistructured interviews. The program achieved its two primary goals of replacing lost markets for local farmers and facilitating increased food distribution to communities in need. To elevate this multisector collaboration and inspire more great work like Dane CARES, we outline the evidence of program value to farmers’ livelihoods, demonstrate the growth of partner networks to support institutional purchasing of local food, and offer recommendations to improve future program iterations.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jessica Guffey Calkins, Claire Mance