Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD) </strong>is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an online-only journal; subscribers may download or print any articles in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Accessing Local Foods: Households Using SNAP Double Bucks and Financial Incentives at a Midwestern Farmers Market https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/668 <p>Farmers markets have flourished in recent decades as alternative distribution outlets for small-scale, organic producers. However, one persistent chal­lenge for farmers markets is attracting a diverse range of patrons across the wide socio-economic spectrum. This issue is even more critical when focused on individuals with a limited budget for food expenditures. Thus, we surveyed SNAP and non-SNAP users who attend a Midwestern farmers market in order to investigate motivations for attend­ance, local food values, and the role that financial incentives play in affecting attendance. Additionally, we compared our findings with our previous research on households who receive SNAP and do not attend the farmers market. Our results underscore that the SNAP users at the market have much in common with their non-SNAP market-going counterparts. There are also several critical differences between market-going SNAP users and the non-going SNAP users. In conclusion, while our results show financial incen­tives work to reduce the reproduction of economic privilege at the farmers market, additional initia­tives are required to address other food access bar­riers and to promote food justice in this important and expanding space.</p> James R. Farmer Angela Babb Sara Minard Marcia Veldman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 8 4 1 26 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.005 THE ECONOMIC PAMPHLETEER: The Future of Food: Separation or Integration? https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/667 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>In a previous Economic Pamphleteer column, I&nbsp;wrote of a battle for the future of food and farming (see Ikerd, 2018). The battle is between those attempting to <em>fix</em> the current agri-food system versus those attempting to <em>replace</em> it. The defining question is whether agriculture can be <em>separated</em> from nature and society or instead must be <em>integrated</em> with nature and society. I used hydro­ponics and concentrated animal feeding operations as examples of attempts to separate or insolate agricultural production from the vagaries and fragilities of nature and the sensitivities and vulner­abilities of society. Synthetic proteins, manu­fac­tured from neither plant nor animal tissue, is per­haps a radical example of the separation cur­rently promoted by some food futurists (Locke, 2016).</p> <p>Admittedly, separating, or at least insulating, some intensive systems of plant and animal production from nature reduces their most apparent negative ecological and social externali­ties. Separation may also reduce production risks and increase economic efficiency. However, sep­aration often raises far larger questions. As humans, we have evolved along with plants and animals as our food sources. The evidence is now clear that diet-related illnesses have increased dramatically as societies have shifted from diets made up of locally grown, raw, and minimally processed plant- and animal-based foods to indus­trially produced, processed, and manufactured foods (World Health Organization, n.d.).&nbsp;The economic costs of public health externalities are sometimes mentioned,&nbsp;though rarely estimated, but the total cost of human suffering from diet-related illnesses is incalculable. . . . .</p> John Ikerd ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 8 4 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.002 Finding a Middle Way to Sustainable Food Systems https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/669 <p><em>First paragraphs: </em></p> <p>The premise of Susan Futrell’s Good Apples: Behind Every Bite is that by understanding the environmental, social, and economic issues affect­ing apples growers in America, the reader can better appreciate and support sustainable food systems. Futrell’s storytelling is grounded in her years of experience working in sustainable food distribution, which includes 25 years in sales and marketing for a cooperatively owned natural food distributor called Blooming Prairie Warehouse in the Midwest, and her current work with Red Tomato, a small nonprofit food hub based in Massachusetts, where she helped develop the Eco Apple<sup>®</sup> program.</p> <p>From the beginning, Futrell resists the pressure to simplify and dichotomize complexities. Chapter 1, <em>At the Intersection of Apples and Local, </em>establishes this tone with her contextual consideration of how the term local is defined. Chapter 2, <em>Immigrant Apples,</em> reviews the history of apples in America. In it she discusses key historical figures and the emer­gence of seedling nurseries, apple varieties, grow­ers’ associations, and land-grant institutions. . . .</p> Danielle Robinson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 8 4 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.015 Why Do People Eat (So Much) Meat?—And How Can We Eat (Much) Less? https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/670 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>Humans eat a lot of meat! According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the annual consumption of meat globally in 2013 was 106 lbs. (48 kg) per capita, up from 56 lbs. (25 kg) in 1961 (FAO, 2018). This amount is projected to increase by between 75% and 145% by 2050 (Godfray et al., 2018), due to the strong correlation between increasing per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) and increasing per-capita meat consump­tion (Tilman and Clark, 2014). And to provide this meat (along with other animal products), there are about 30 billion livestock animals in the world at any given time—four times the number of humans; over 160 billion livestock are slaughtered annually, half of these poultry (FAO, 2018). No wonder that meat’s impact on our planet and our lives is so large.</p> <p>The implied question permeating Wilson Warren’s book is “Why do we eat so much meat?” The title suggests one answer—the belief that <em>Meat Makes People Powerful</em>—and the text makes clear that this is in terms of health, culture, and economics. The final chapters ask a further question—<em>How can we stop eating so much meat?</em> They describe the major role that meat is playing in anthropogenic climate change and environmental pollution in general, as well as in the current global noncommunicable disease pandemic. They also discuss the over­whelm­ingly negative effects of meat consumption on animal welfare and on social equity. . . .</p> David Cleveland ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 8 4 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.016 Contested Sustainabilities: The Post-carbon Future of Agri-food, Rural Development and Sustainable Place-making https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/671 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>Terry Marsden has enormous experience work­ing in the fields of agri-food, rural develop­ment, and sustainable place-making. He digs deeply into his experience in this book, looking back over the recent history of food and rural development, analyzing current trends in these areas, and looking forward in an age of great uncertainty, both envi­ron­mental and political, to better understand and promote sustainable food systems.</p> <p>He begins by positing a significant transition from neoliberalism and production agriculture to a looming choice between what he refers to as the bio-economy and the eco-economy. He describes the former as being “characterized by exogenous development through corporate controlled produc­tion of biological products (fuels, mass, technology, enzymes, genomics) for global markets” (p. 92). Backed by the Organization for Economic Coop­eration and Development (OECD) and endorsed by the European Union, the bio-economy is the post-carbon offspring of neoliberalism: a little more aware of its shortcomings, but still enmeshed in a business-as-usual paradigm. In essence, it “incorporates the multiple ways in which rural and urban people and their institutions manage and manipulate the biosphere which sustains their existence and creates economic value out of its non-renewable and renewable resources” (p. 22). . . .</p> Jennifer Sumner ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 8 4 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.018 IN THIS ISSUE: What Is a ‘Multiplier’ Anyway? Assessing the Economics of Local Food Systems Toolkit https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/666 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>This special issue examines the effectiveness of organizing and conducting formal impact assess­ments in measuring the economic impacts and opportunity costs associated with local food system policies, programming, and investment. It features 11 articles by a diverse range of academic research­ers and community stakeholders who have used the publication, the <em>Economics of Local Food Systems: A Toolkit to Guide Community Discussions, Assessments and Choices</em><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> (which we refer to as “the Toolkit” hereafter) to initialize, frame, and carry out eco­nomic impact assessments of local and regional food system activity. Many of the case studies fea­tured in this special issue are directly connected to the over 30 technical assis­tance workshops pro­vided by the Toolkit’s authors and other partners between 2015 and 2018 follow­ing the Toolkit’s release. Our intention in compil­ing these papers is to gauge whether practitioners and researchers find the Toolkit useful in demon­strating compelling evidence of the economic impacts of food system development strategies, and when they do, to demonstrate its utility and share best practices.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> See the Toolkit online at <a href="https://www.ams.usda.gov/publications/content/economics-local-food-systems-toolkit-guide-community-discussions-assessments">https://www.ams.usda.gov/publications/content/economics-local-food-systems-toolkit-guide-community-discussions-assessments</a></p> Becca B. R. Jablonski Dawn Thilmany McFadden ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-30 2019-01-30 8 4 1 8 10.5304/jafscd.2019.08C.013 Where Will Your Dollar Go? https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/665 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>To enter the world of food systems means nothing and everything. Ask a stranger on the sidewalk what they think the food system is and they may respond by talking about farmers, com­munity gardens, or perhaps the restaurants that surround them in the neighborhood. Ask a food systems researcher and they may describe a com­plex web of relationships between those who grow, eat, buy, and distribute food. Food’s interdiscipli­nary nature makes it not only difficult to under­stand as a concept but quantify as a value to our communities. As a result, traditional lending institu­tions’ criteria for risk assessment may be at odds with what new food ventures have to offer. <em>Harvesting Opportunity: The Power of Regional Food System Investments to Transform Communities </em>aims to communicate this message and more through a collection of essays and reports compiled by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The in-depth research and case studies about investing in local and regional food systems are broad enough to be approachable by the average foodie, but filled with enough detail to serve as assigned reading at the collegiate level, especially for courses in business, finance, and food systems. Through its chapters, the underlying theme of money and food allows the authors to convey a connection between seemingly contradictory stakeholders, such as com­munity development financial institutions (CDFIs) and small restaurant owners.</p> Emily Reno ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 8 4 179 180 10.5304/jafscd.2019.08C.012 Building Multipliers, Rather than Measuring Them: Community-Minded Ways to Develop Economic Impacts https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/663 <p>As co-authors of the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service’s (AMS) Economics of Local Food Systems Toolkit featured in this special issue, we pose the question of whether standard input-output (I-O) modeling approaches are appropriate for use in community foods work. In this reflective essay, we discuss the underlying data used in the most common assessment tools and suggest that they are not precise enough for estimating the impacts of emergent small local food firms amid rapidly changing contexts, even when modified following generally accepted methodologies. Since the basis of I-O modeling is the understanding that the various sectors of an economy are linked—an output from one sector may be an input to another—we are proposing approaches that make these community linkages more visible to food system practitioners. We wish to advance the idea that placing the focus on <em>how communities build robust multipliers </em>may be a better use of resources than generating multiplier calculations that hold questionable value. We suggest that methodologies derived from social network analysis (SNA) will prove increasingly useful in the impact(s) discussion.</p> Megan Phillips Goldenberg Ken Meter ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-23 2019-01-23 8 4 153 164 10.5304/jafscd.2019.08C.010 Making Change through Local Food Production: Calculating the Economic Impact of Your Local Food Project https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/664 <p>Given the growing interest in local food systems and the complexity of modeling the economic impacts of such systems, the Local Food Impact Calculator (LFIC) was created to provide a simple but methodologically sound tool to assist practi­tioners. In this paper, we cite four examples, along with discussion of each, to illustrate both the use and application of the calculator, as well as to pro­vide additional insights into using the calculator. Readers will learn that economic impact analysis provides information about industrial linkages in the local economy, and how to understand the implied multiplier’s value from the LFIC in the context of their local economy. When used carefully, the LFIC can be a useful tool for use in com­munity conversations around local foods.</p> Dave Shideler Philip Watson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-23 2019-01-23 8 4 165 177 10.5304/jafscd.2019.08C.011 San Jose Food Works Study: Demonstrating the Economics of Local Food Systems Toolkit Methodology https://foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/661 <p>Like many fast-growing cities with a history as a major food production area, San Jose, California, has largely left its agricultural heritage behind. Much of its famed Valley of the Heart’s Delight, so-called because of the vista of springtime blos­soms and once a nationally important fruit produc­tion region, has been developed into the Silicon Valley, now a global high-tech center. The San Jose Food Works study makes a case that the food sector can be an important driver for achiev­ing the city’s goals for economic development, place-making, public health, and sustainability. The study analyzes the economic contributions to the city from each food supply chain sector––produc­tion, distribution, processing, retail, and food service. It also engages stakeholders from agencies, busi­nesses, and community-based organizations in identifying gaps and opportunities for strengthen­ing these contributions. The recommendations developed with these stakeholders reflect a new commitment to collaborate on building a more robust, equitable, vibrant, and sustainable local food system. This reflective essay describes the practitioner-led development of a city-scale food supply chain assessment, as a process and product that demonstrate the methodology presented in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economics of Local Food Systems Toolkit (Thilmany McFadden et al., 2016).</p> Sibella Kraus ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-16 2019-01-16 8 4 119 135 10.5304/jafscd.2019.08C.007