Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD) </strong>is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an online-only journal; subscribers may download or print any articles in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Soil Contaminant Concentrations at Urban Agricultural Sites in New Orleans, Louisiana <p>Along with the many benefits of urban agriculture comes the possible exposure to contaminants not typically seen in rural soils. Through the use of standard laboratory analyses (ICP-AES and CVAAS) and a field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) calibrated for soil analysis, this study quantified contamination levels at urban agricultural sites throughout New Orleans, Louisiana. The results of the standard laboratory analyses were compared to the results from the XRF. &nbsp;We collected soil samples at 27 urban and suburban farm and garden sites from the Greater New Orleans area. We analyzed the soil samples for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, nickel, and zinc using the XRF and standard methods. Most sites had median con­centrations significantly below Louisiana’s soil standards. Paired soil samples showed XRF results were significantly higher than laboratory results for all metals but copper. Only lead (ρ=0.82, <em>p</em>&lt;0.0001) and zinc (ρ=0.78, <em>p</em>=0.0001) were highly correlated. Poor correlation of results between XRF and standard methods make the standard methods preferred.</p> Kyle M. Moller James G. Hartwell Bridget R. Simon-Friedt Mark J. Wilson Jeffrey K. Wickliffe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-20 2018-06-20 8 2 1 11 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.010 Saying Yes to the Precautionary Principle <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In <em>A Precautionary Tale: How One Small Town Banned Pesticides, Preserved Its Food Heritage, and Inspired a Movement,</em> Philip Ackerman-Leist tells the story of Mals, in Northern Italy. He does it in a way that makes the reader feel as if they have visited a very special place and an equally singular moment in time. Just as notably, this biography of place holds a steady eye to turns in elegant lan­guage. The title explains what happens in the book. The combination of the humanistic details and <em>how</em> the story is told, however, makes for a contem­porary socio-agricultural fairy-tale (if such a genre can exist), complete with a supplemental chapter at the end of the book called “An Activist’s Primer: How To Push Back on Pesticides At Home” (pp. 195–199)...</p> Darcy Mullen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-07 2018-06-07 8 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.004 The Food Sovereignty Project <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In <em>The Politics of Food Sovereignty: Concept, Practice and Social Movements, </em>editors Annie Shattuck, Christina Schiavoni, and Zoe VanGelder bring together some of the seminal contributions of the Yale McMillan Center Agrarian Studies Program’s 2013 conference focused on food sovereignty (“Food Sovereignty: A Critical Dialogue”). These proceedings were originally published in a special issue of the journal <em>Globalizations</em> (volume 12, issue 4, 2015). This book is valuable in general as it dis­cusses the upcoming challenges and contradictions of food sovereignty, a rising concept and political movement in the Global South and North. Con­trasting with the food sovereignty literature to date, which has mainly focused on the Global South (from which food sovereignty movements have emerged), this book shows how the original idea has expanded to encompass the Global North and urban communities. This book includes cases studies from the U.S., Canada, Russia, Peru, and Venezuela, demonstrating that many types of sovereignties may exist and coexist at different scales, which is a big challenge....</p> Salma Loudiyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-07 2018-06-07 8 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.011 Three-year Case Study of National Organizations Participating in a Nutrition Cohort <p>Improving food access is a complex challenge, and a broad range of U.S. nonprofit organizations are working to create positive change. In an attempt to amplify the impact of a single organization, foun­dations have begun funding collaboratives of mul­tiple, high-achieving organizations. This three-year case study documents the successes, challenges, and recommendations of the funder-initiated but grantee-driven Nutrition Cohort. The Cohort, initiated and funded by a foundation, includes six nutrition-focused member organiza­tions, and was evaluated by a university partner (Tufts University). Study data from three annual waves of collection were triangulated using (1) key informant inter­views with Cohort members and Foundation staff, (2) a survey of Cohort members, and (3) review of documents about or created by Cohort organiza­tions. Over the study period the primary reported success of the Cohort was its commitment to work together as a “learning collaborative.” Crucial changes over the study period included enhanced trust and relationship building and promising shifts in perceptions surrounding the necessity of meet­ing attendance. This study also highlights additional benefits of the Cohort’s formation and growth across the three-year period, including organiza­tional capacity building, improved fundraising strategies, and enhanced community impact. Study findings have implications for the practice of food systems development and may provide guidance for other foundations interested in starting similar collaboratives.</p> Sarah A. Amin Megan Lehnerd Sean B. Cash Christina D. Economos Jennifer M. Sacheck ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-04 2018-06-04 8 2 1 15 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.009 Building Sustainable Communities Through Food Hubs <p>In this paper, we explore the current state of the food hub by discussing innovative practices supporting efforts to build healthy, equitable, and sustainable food systems. We present key insights from a roundtable discussion among scholars and practitioners from Australia, Canada, and the United States held during the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers. Our discussion presents a food hub continuum that describes different pathways to effect change, from enhancing food supply chains to challenging the negative outcomes of the dominant food system through a social and ecological justice approach. This perspective problematizes typical descriptions of food hubs by recognizing the different goals and objectives as well as the resulting opportunities, challenges, and innovations. While we do not sug­gest one end of the continuum is more important than the other, we identify a series of productive tensions that emerge. Our discussion is structured around four central themes from the collaborative conversation: (1) Descriptions of food hubs; (2) Differing objectives; (3) Navigating success; and, (4) Encountering barriers. We conclude with suggestions on ways to bolster the work of foods hubs through research, policy change, and greater collaboration. This contribution is significant for bridging the overlapping yet diverging conversation between scholarship and practice to better inform food hub development.</p> Charles Z. Levkoe Colleen Hammelman Luke Craven Gavin Dandy Jeff Farbman James Harrison Phil Mount ##submission.copyrightStatement## CC BY 4.0 2018-06-01 2018-06-01 8 2 1 16 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.008 Salvageable Food Losses from Vermont Farms <p>For a variety of reasons, farms cannot sell or donate all the food they produce, and some food crops are lost from the food supply. Food lost at the farm level represents a substantial environ­mental, economic, and nutritional cost to the food system. Few studies have estimated amounts of food lost at the farm level in the U.S. We present a survey-based method for estimating crop loss quantities based on four estimates by farmers: percent available crops that are harvested, percent unharvested crops they would consider edible, percent harvested produce sold, and percent harvested produce donated. We applied the method in an online survey administered to 58 Vermont vegetable and berry farms. Within the sample, an estimated 16% of vegetables and 15% of berries were considered lost but salvageable in 2015. If these farms are representative of farms across the state, this would amount to approxi­mately 13,684,000 lbs. (6,207,000 kg) of salvageable vegetables and 589,000 lbs. (267,000 kg) of salvage­able berries. This lost produce contains substantial nutrients. For example, the amount of lost fiber is equivalent to the gap between actual and recom­mended fiber intake for 36,000 adult U.S. women. Most estimates are based on recall. While many farmers reported keeping records of crops har­vested (67%) and sold (69%), few had records of other quantities needed for tracking losses. Sixty percent of farmers expressed interest in a state program that would compensate farmers for dona­tions and nearly half expressed interest in one or more strategies to involve community groups in reducing losses. While not all produce that is lost can realistically be provided to consumers in a timely and cost-effective manner, this research highlights a high magnitude of loss and potentially, a considerable nutritional and economic opportu­nity. Further research is needed to confirm and add depth to these estimates and to evaluate potential solutions.</p> Roni A. Neff Elana K. Dean Marie L. Spiker Theresa Snow ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 8 2 1 34 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.006 The SNAP Challenge: Communicating Food Security Capabilities through Anti-Hunger Advocacy This research brief reports preliminary findings related to the SNAP Challenge (SC), an anti-hunger initiative in which participants purchase their household groceries using the average food stamp budget benefit for one week. By simulating a SNAP budget, SC participants encounter food insecurity directly, recognizing how the food they are able to consume connects to income, nutrition needs, and other factors that contribute to quality of life, all of which can be considered capabilities of food security. Linking the experience of food hardship to conditions of poverty can address not only immediate food needs but also the interconnected material opportunities and disparities that constitute food (in)security. In this way, I suggest, a capability approach to food security can better align anti-hunger advocacy and food system policy. This initial study supports ongoing research related to anti-hunger advocacy communication, food security discourse, and capability-based approaches to food system reform. Kathleen P. Hunt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 8 2 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.007 Taking on the C-word <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p><p>What role does love play in challenging the devastating impacts of capitalism on our food system? What role does hope play? For Holt-Giménez, the author of <em>A Foodie’s Guide to Capital­ism,</em> both love and hope are essential in building a more just and sustainable world, and his newest book is inspired by his long career of allying with those “for whom giving up was not an option” (p. 240). Concluding a treatise on understanding the inner workings and history of capitalism with a call for love and hope might seem trite at first glance. And yet, this is perhaps the best indication of the narrowness and cynicism that often dominate the thinking of those of us who consider ourselves food activists. Another world is indeed possible, and Holt-Giménez gives us the tools we need to better understand the ways that capitalism—and racism—and sexism—and classism—stand in the way of that world. This is the kind of intersectional analysis that we need in the face of climate change, the plundering and privatization of our natural resources, and the ongoing attacks on democracy and progressive politics. <em>A Foodie’s Guide to Capitalism</em> allows the reader to understand how these kinds of wicked problems are interrelated with the ways that food is grown, distributed, consumed, and wasted...</p> Teresa M. Mares ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-08 2018-05-08 8 2 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.002 A Primer on Local Food Systems <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p><p>Jennifer Robinson and James Farmer’s <em>Selling Local: Why Local Food Movements Matter </em>consoli­dates decades of research on the local food move­ment, drawing attention to the array of local food developments in the U.S. Midwest and Appalachia regions. The authors provide a narrative that weaves together voices from various stakeholders, taking the reader from farmers markets to community supported agriculture (CSA) to food hubs, while providing a scholarly analysis of the diverse capacities and limitations of these enterprises as well as offering a framework for assessing local food initiatives.</p><p class="JBodyText">The title and content page hint at the under­lying purpose of this book, which is to support the local food movement by identifying strengths, weaknesses, and leverage points that may be tap­ped to improve the capacity and success of diverse initiatives—all of which are necessary and impor­tant endeavors for cultivating and expanding local food systems....</p> Amber A. Heckelman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-08 2018-05-08 8 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.003 Do Affluent Urban Consumers Drive Direct Food Sales in the Northeast United States? A Three-part Analysis The last century has seen steady decline in the number of farms and ever-worsening concentra­tion of economic power in the food system. In more recent decades, agricultural sales directly to consumers have grown, raising questions about the role of economic privilege and its spatial distribu­tion in supporting direct marketing. We address this question in a three-part analysis of 216 counties in nine Northeast states. First, we com­pare four direct-sales indicators and their common covariates among county types defined by metro­politan status and adjacency to metro/nonmetro borders. Second, we map four direct-sales variables over these county types. Third, we construct panel regression models with county as a fixed-effect in order to examine the influence of county-level household income on direct agricultural sales while controlling for other county-level variables shown to have an influence: population, vegetable produc­tion, farm size, and number of farms. Together, these three perspectives—bivariate, spatial, and multivariate—show that economic privilege is a factor in direct food sales, but not necessarily a driver. The variability across the region and the different patterns associated with different direct-marketing variables indicate that both researchers and practitioners would benefit from strategies sensitive to context, contingency, and change over time. Amy Guptill David A. Larsen Rick Welsh Erin Kelly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-08 2018-05-08 8 2 1 14 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.005