Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Building an Indigenous Foods Knowledges Network Through Relational Accountability <p>In recent decades, there has been a movement toward rectifying injustices and developing collab­orations between Indigenous communities and mainstream researchers to address environmental challenges that are of concern to Indigenous Peo­ples. This movement, primarily driven by Indige­nous community leaders and scholars, emphasizes community-driven research that addresses Indige­nous People’s interests, foregrounds Indigenous Knowledge systems, and both respects and asserts Indigenous sovereignty. This article describes a nascent model in the movement—the Indigenous Foods Knowledges Network (IFKN)—designed to connect Indigenous communities and scholars across the Arctic and the U.S. Southwest. IFKN’s goal is to foster a network of Indigenous leaders, citizens, and scholars who are focused on research and community capacity related to food sover­eignty and resilience. IFKN members collectively work to promote and carry out research that (1)&nbsp;utilizes Indigenous research processes, (2)&nbsp;embraces and respects Indigenous Knowledge sys­tems, and (3) supports Indigenous communities (IFKN, 2018). The authors discuss relational accountability and centering of story, which form the foundation for the methodological approaches and work of IFKN.</p> Mary Beth Jäger Daniel Ferguson Orville Huntington Michael Johnson Noor Johnson Amy Juan Shawna Larson Peter Pulsifer Tristan Reader Colleen Strawhacker Althea Walker Denali Whiting Jamie Wilson Janene Yazzie Stephanie Carroll Indigenous Foods Knowledges Network Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 9 B 1 7 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.005 Decolonizing the Caribbean Diet <p>We wonder if food and agriculture will be an emer­gent theme in reclaiming the Taíno identity, the Indigenous people of the Caribbean. As we con­sider the emergent movement to decolonize our diets and <em>utilize food as medicine</em> alongside veganism and vegetarianism trends, we wonder<em> how</em> and <em>if</em> food, foodways, and agriculture are or will be tools to decolonize and reclaim the Taíno identity. In this paper, we will explore two perspectives on the possible opportunities and challenges of such movements and how they will look in the Caribbean and its diaspora.</p> <p><em>Note:</em> Updated version published December 3, 2019, to correctly cite sources on second page.</p> Vanessa García Polanco Luis Rodríguez-Cruz Copyright (c) 2019 Vanessa García Polanco, Luis Rodríguez-Cruz 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 9 B 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.004 Fighting for the Taste Buds of Our Children <p>In this commentary, I focus on the impacts of Indian boarding school food on American Indian foodways and community as a source of acculturation that has a lasting effects even in the present day. From the introduction of specific foods that now make up the modern diet of many American Indian communities, to the generational cycle that begins <em>in utero,</em> the taste buds of American Indian children are still subject to the “American Indian Boarding School experiment” that began in the late 1800s. Only American Indian communities can determine when that experiment stops.</p> A-dae Romero-Briones Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 9 B 1 9 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.020 THE ECONOMIC PAMPHLETEER: Indigenous Wisdom and the Sovereignty to Eat Meat <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Growing concerns about global climate change have rekindled an age-old controversy about eating meat (Carrington, 2018). Animal agriculture is frequently indicted as a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. However, animal agri­culture is not without defenders, including those who claim that holistically managed livestock graz­ing systems could actually “reverse climate change” (Savory, 2013). Various studies suggest that the environmental impacts of food animal production differ significantly among management systems—particularly confinement versus pasture-based systems (Koneswaran &amp; Nierenberg, 2008). Due to its complexity, this controversy will not likely be resolved by science. Instead, the wisdom of Indige­nous peoples may prove more useful in deciding whether to eat or not eat meat. . . .</p> John Ikerd Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 9 B 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.019 Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake with Reservation and Off-reservation Kindergarten Students in Nevada <p>American Indian tribes historically survived on hunting, gathering, and farming activities. As federal policy changed, reservations were estab­lished, which limited some of these hunting and gathering activities. Nevada is home to Washoe, Shoshone, and Paiute American Indians. There are 19 federally recognized American Indian tribes with 27 reservations and colonies geographically dispersed across the state of Nevada. Several of these reservations are near Nevada’s small, rural towns where access to fruits and vegetables is lim­ited. Often, the residents of small rural towns next to the reservation are unaware of the tribal cultural history. University of Nevada Cooperative Exten­sion created an elementary nutrition education pro­gram called Veggies for Kids, for use in reservation schools and off-reservation schools under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education (SNAP-Ed). The Veggies for Kids program utilizes tradi­tional foods, tribal language, and gardening experi­ences as building blocks to introduce healthy eating and increase fruit and vegetable intake among ele­mentary students. For the 2017–2018 school year, pre- and post-test data were collected from 45 American Indian kindergarten students attending schools on reservations and 486 kindergarten stu­dents in off-reservation schools located next to a reservation. Methods of data analysis included descriptive statistics, paired sample t-tests, and nonparametric McNemar testing. Results from the kindergarten data showed an increase in test scores of students correctly identifying USDA’s MyPlate food groups, naming selected fruits and vegetables provided during the program, self-reporting water consumption, and selecting physical activity. Cumulative student test scores for all kindergarten data were statistically significant at <em>p</em>-value &lt;.001.</p> Staci Emm Jessica Harris Judy Halterman Sarah Chvilicek Carol Bishop Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 9 B 1 10 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.014 Sogorea Te Land Trust and Indigenous Food Sovereignty in the San Francisco Bay Area <p>Indigenous food sovereignty is about much more than consumption choices, food access, and tradi­tional knowledge; it is fundamentally about access to land for sacred ceremony and traditional prac­tice. This article will highlight an innovative case study in indigenous land “rematriation” (returning the land to its original stewards and inhabitants) on the occupied lands of the Chochenyo and Karkin Ohlone peoples, also known as Oakland or the East San Francisco Bay Area of California, through a partnership with Sogorea Te Land Trust, an urban indigenous women-led land trust, and Planting Justice, a food-justice nonprofit based in Oakland.</p> K. Nicole Wires Johnella LaRose Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 9 B 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.003 Contribution of Wild Foods to Diet, Food Security, and Cultural Values Amidst Climate Change <p>Wild foods are recognized to contribute to diet and food security through enhancing the availability of local, diverse, and nonmarket food sources. We investigated the contribution of wild foods to diet, food security, and cultural identity in a Native American<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> community in the context of climate change. Structured interviews were conducted with low-income residents of the Flathead Indian Reser­vation<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[2]</a> in Northwestern Montana who participate in the federal Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, also known by participants as ‘Commodities.’ Responses to structured questions were analyzed for frequency, and open-ended responses were coded and analyzed to identify prevalent themes. Our analysis indicated that half of participants were food insecure. Approximately 28% of participants engaged in at least one wild food procurement activity, including hunting, fishing, and harvesting. On average, participants who engaged in one or more wild food procure­ment activities were more food secure than those who did not. Results highlight the multidimen­sional valuation of wild foods by participants including taste, freshness, nutritional quality, being a traditional community practice, and providing a sense of self-sufficiency. Climate change is per­ceived by participants to be adversely impacting wild food systems due to increased variability in seasonality and precipitation and increased inci­dences of wild fire. Findings point to the need for community-based strategies to strengthen wild food knowledge toward enhancing food sover­eignty in Native American communities, in the context of climate change.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> The term ‘Native American’ was determined to be the preferred term for referencing the Native American community in this study, based on consultation from our community advisory board.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[2]</a> The term ‘Flathead Indian Reservation’ was determined to be the preferred term for referencing the location in which this study was held, based on consultation from our community advisory board.</p> <p>See the <a title="Press release archive" href=";f=60033&amp;s=84565&amp;m=986350&amp;t=257c360ddc23fcec50d37942ed548ee4169a6c0d76d51e227fa886af9ecdf0c7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">press release</a> for this article.</p> Erin Smith Selena Ahmed Virgil Dupuis MaryAnn Running Crane Margaret Eggers Mike Pierre Kenneth Flagg Carmen Byker Shanks Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 9 B 1 24 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.011 Enhancing Food Sovereignty <p>A long history of tribal disenfranchisement through government policies has contributed to a lack of trust and participation by tribal communi­ties in nontribal organizations and initiatives. This article will discuss the process through which new partnerships were forged using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach among university researchers, local nontribal organiza­tions, and three Tribes in the Klamath River Basin of southern Oregon and northern California through a five-year federal food security grant. The partnership’s shared goal was to enhance tribal health and food security and food sovereignty in the Klamath River Basin by building a healthy, sus­tainable, and culturally relevant food system. We describe the context that gave rise to this collabo­rative partnership; share reflections on how project goals, objectives, and activities were co-created, adapted, and implemented; and highlight specific examples of research, education, and extension activities, informed by CBPR, that support the tribal goals of strengthening Indigenous food sovereignty. We also share lessons learned from navigating unforeseen challenges in ways that we hope can provide insight for scholars, cooperative extension advisors, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies seeking to build effective partnerships with tribes working toward food system change in Native American communities.</p> <p>See the <a title="Press release archive" href=";f=60033&amp;s=84565&amp;m=986095&amp;t=257c360ddc23fcec50d37942ed548ee4169a6c0d76d51e227fa886af9ecdf0c7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">press release</a> for this article.</p> Jennifer Sowerwine Daniel Sarna-Wojcicki Megan Mucioki Lisa Hillman Frank Lake Edith Friedman Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 9 B 1 24 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.013 Restorying Northern Arapaho Food Sovereignty <p>Communities in Indian Country across the U.S. are reconnecting to traditional and healthier food sys­tems, often working explicitly for food sovereignty. This paper contributes to these reconnection efforts by (re)telling the story of the Northern Arapaho food system and the path we are creating toward health and our reclamation of Northern Arapaho food sovereignty. With support from my co-author, I approached data gathering and analysis in a blend of traditional native and conventional western research ways. I use the phrase “foreign intrusion” to help re-name eras in our history when our food system was altered by colonialism, forms of physical and cultural genocide, and assimilation. This “restorying” of the food system history of the Northern Arapaho people provides an indigenized frame for understanding our food system history, impacts of intrusion, and paths for reclaiming Indigenous food sovereignty. My methods include interviews with tribal members (<em>N</em>=16), three talking circles (<em>N</em>=14, 11, and 6), autoethnography, seven years of participation and observation in food sovereignty work, and document analysis, in addition to extensive literature reviews.</p> Melvin Arthur Christine Porter Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 9 B 1 16 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.012 Place-Based Food Systems: Making the Case, Making it Happen <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In less than a century, our food system has been transformed into a complex network of global-industrial supply chains, increasingly disconnecting us from the people and processes that provide our food. Such a ‘market-driven’ system externalizes many of its social, environmental, and economic costs. At the same time, it concentrates power and profits among a few stakeholders who maintain hegemonic control of the food systems, yet are often far removed from its negative impacts. The list of transgressions is long and familiar to us: extensive environmental degradation, unjust labor conditions for food workers, the collapse of farming communities, epidemic occurrence of western diet–related disease, biodiversity loss, and on it goes. It is a system that produces more food than at any period in history—more than enough to feed the global population (Holt-Giménez, Shattuck, Altieri, Herren, &amp; Gliessman, 2012, Food and Agriculture Organ­ization of the United Nations [FAO], 2017)—yet leaves more than one in 10 people experiencing hunger (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], International Fund for Agricul­ture Devel­opment [IFAD], UNICEF, World Food Programme [WFP], &amp; World Health Organization [WHO], 2019).</p> Kent Mullinix Naomi Robert Rebecca Harbut Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 9 B 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09A.002