Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Just Transition for Agriculture? A Critical Step in Tackling Climate Change <p>Just Transition has become an established discursive and conceptual framework to transition economic industries toward a low-carbon and climate-resilient future. In the coal and mining industry in particular, it has gained a foothold and transformed politics and livelihoods. In other areas, like animal agriculture, which is equally damaging to the climate, the need for change and the deployment of Just Transition to achieve it are not yet established. Drawing on the most recent scientific insights by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this viewpoint argues that transitioning toward a low-carbon production is just as imperative in agriculture. Specifically, it demands that we move away from animal agriculture. The viewpoint concludes by sketching possible areas and means of intervention.</p> Charlotte Blattner Copyright (c) 2020 Charlotte Blattner 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 9 2 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2020.093.006 THE ECONOMIC PAMPHLETEER: Local Food: Another Food Fad or Food of the Future? <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>When anticipating the future, many experts simply examine trends of the past and project them into the future—as if trends continue indefinitely. However, one of the most fundamental principles of science is that everything on earth tends to cycle—whether physically, ecologically, economically, or socially (Culotta, 1991; Pool, 1991). All trends eventually stall out and reverse direction. Some apparent aberrations or blips in trends turn out to be harbingers of impending reversals. Some see the reemergence of farmers markets and popularity of locally grown foods as a passing fad or a blip in a continuing trend toward the globalization of the food system. Others see the local food movement as a harbinger of fundamental change. . . .</p> John Ikerd Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 9 2 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2020.093.005 Food Waste Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intentions among University Students <p>After policy change, educational programming has been cited as one of the most powerful tools for improving food systems and decreasing food waste. University students represent a population in which emerging habits, skills, and identity may be targeted easily and changed through on-campus educational programming. To understand how to best implement programming on impacts of food, food waste, and related issues, the factors that underlie students’ behaviors related to food waste must be understood. We analyzed factors that influence food waste–related behaviors within a university student population to understand the potential for improving targeted, school-based food waste diversion programming. Four hundred and ninety-five students were surveyed to: (1) identify self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to food waste; (2) explore underlying factors driving food waste–related behaviors through exploratory factor analysis (EFA); and (3) understand the interactions between factors within a regression framework. Participants reported that they most often left food on their plate because it did not taste good or they had overestimated portion size. A majority of participants already performed many food waste reduction behaviors, and were both interested in taking action and aware that their efforts could make a difference. Food management skills, compost attitudes, sustainability attitudes, and reported household food waste were correlated, in various ways, with both intent to reduce and reported food waste reduction behaviors. Opportunities for improving university-related food waste programming through this data are explored.</p> Manar Alattar James DeLaney Jennifer Morse Max Nielsen-Pincus Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-03-18 2020-03-18 9 2 1 16 10.5304/jafscd.2020.093.004 Government Extension, Agroecology, and Sustainable Food Systems in Belize Milpa Communities <p>The sustainability of<em> milpa</em> agriculture, a traditional Mayan farming system in southern Belize, is uncertain. For centuries, the milpa has been a sustainable agriculture system. The slash-and-burn aspect of milpa farming, however, has become less reliable and less sustainable over the last 50 years due to several factors, including forest loss, climate change, population growth, and other factors. The traditional milpa practices of slash-and-mulch and soil nutrient enrichment (nutrient cycling) are agroecological practices that produce food in a more sustainable way. Agriculture extension, a government service in Belize, can promote additional agroecological practices to address food and livelihood insecurities in milpa communities. This study examines perceptions of these practices from milpa farmers and agricultural extension officers in Belize using a socio-ecological systems (SES) framework. SES considers multidisciplinary linkages, including social, economic, environmental, cultural, and other factors in the agroecological system. The study finds several of these SES linkages between agroecological practices<em>—</em>specifically slash-and-mulch and soil nutrient enrichment<em>—</em>and the sustainability of the milpa farming system in southern Belize. Milpa communities are part of the broader SES and therefore are affected by changes to it. Milpa communities can also be enabled and participate in solution-finding. The findings imply that increasing the use of agroecology practices in milpa communities is needed and that government involvement and action, particularly from agriculture extension services, can facilitate a more sustainable milpa farming system and therefore more food and livelihood security in milpa communities in Belize.</p> Kristin Drexler Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 9 2 1 13 10.5304/jafscd.2020.093.001 Exploring Resource Management for Sustainable Food Businesses <p>This paper is an exploratory comparative case study of three Vermont food businesses. It examines the use of transaction cost and knowledge management theories to understand how food businesses with sustainability missions make key management decisions about resource allocation (the “make or buy” decision). Results suggest that these businesses’ decisions are driven in part by their personal values and interests and their desire to support other local businesses and contribute to their communities. Their decisions also largely conform to what the aforementioned theories would predict: specifically, they <em>make</em> inputs and services that are within their core competencies, they <em>form partnerships</em> to procure key inputs and support other local businesses, and they <em>buy inputs</em> readily available in existing markets in order to free up their time and increase efficiency. Furthermore, they allocate their own time to activities they enjoy or those with high strategic value for the business. The discussion focuses on how these findings may guide future research and how these theoretical frame­works may be used to better understand entrepreneur behavior, foster mutually beneficial partnerships, and advance sustainability missions in food business.</p> David Conner Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 9 2 1 9 10.5304/jafscd.2020.093.002 Everything You Ever Wanted to Know (or Didn’t Know You Wanted to Know) about Community Compost! <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>What once may have been an underground movement to save organic materials from the waste stream, community composting is now celebrated and further empowered by James McSweeney’s technical guide <em>Community-Scale Composting Systems: A Comprehensive Practical Guide for Closing the Food Systems Loop and Solving Our Waste Crisis. </em>The book meticulously unpacks this major challenge facing the food system in the U.S.—nothing short of a food waste crisis—and how to scale up in order to solve it. From the neighborly grassroots level to the budding entrepreneur, this tome feeds the budding “rotstar” on every scale—from backyard composting to organic waste haul­ing. There’s just something about composting for everyone. As McSweeney notes in the introduction, “Composting calls, it speaks from the beyond, drawing in believers. . . . A large number maintain a deep belief in composting as part of a holistic way of life” (p. 5). His new book is a well-researched, intricate foray into the world of community composting.&nbsp;</p> Malory Foster Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 9 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2020.093.003 Comparative Analysis of Four Maple Species for Syrup Production in South-Central Appalachia <p>Sugar maple (<em>Acer saccharum </em>L.) is a key cultural and economic resource from eastern Canada to south-central Appalachia. Environmental uncertainties could create problems for this iconic species, in particular affecting the southern extent of its range and thus increasing the need for alternative species in maple syrup production. To mediate uncertain­ties, some producers tap additional species, including box elder (<em>Acer negundo </em>L.), red maple (<em>Acer rubrum </em>L.), and silver maple (<em>Acer saccharinum </em>L.). For viable marketability, sap from alternative species should be comparable to sugar maple in volume and sugar concentration. In the 2016 and 2017 tapping seasons, data were collected on sap volume and sap sugar concentration (SSC) for each of these maple species. Sap parameter performance data revealed box elder and to a lesser extent silver maple as the most appropriate alternative species for syrup production in the south-central Appa­lachian region, while red maple, which is a com­monly tapped species in northern regions, per­formed comparably in SSC but very poorly in sap volume in this study. Diversifying sap sources could provide additional sap and tree counts avail­able to producers, allowing for more varied man­agement strategies to mediate climatic variations and uncertainties. This diversification can also allow for industry expansion into areas without sufficient sugar maples and potentially create a new product niche in the maple industry, which can promote rural economic development in south-central Appalachia through ways compatible with other sustainable agroforestry and outdoor tourism efforts.</p> Jacob Peters Ryan Huish Dakota Taylor Benjamin Munson Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 9 2 267 276 10.5304/jafscd.2020.092.015 In This Issue: Open Call Papers <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Earlier this winter, the Alaska cod fishery—once considered robust and resilient—was closed for the entire 2020 season. It has been a blow to coastal communities’ economies and ways of life, and to the food supply chain North America has depended on for much of its cod. The reality is that fisheries around the world are being dramatically affected by overconsumption, overfishing, and climate change. Consumers are flocking to nutritious sources of ocean-based proteins, from top-of-the-food-chain tuna to secondary and tertiary species and even bycatch. But what are the consequences of this trend? As with many aspects of the food system, we must find a balance between our personal health and well-being and the interests of the planet. Finding this homeostasis is the mission of a growing number of food systems researchers and practitioners, and this is a welcome addition to the good food movement. As depicted on our cover, the state of Rhode Island’s Seafood Marketing Collaborative may provide an example of a practical way forward in finding this balance. . . .</p> Duncan Hilchey Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 9 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2020.092.023 Resistance and the Black Freedom Movement <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>Landmark: 1. An object or feature of a landscape . . . that is easily seen and recognized from a distance, especially one that enables someone to establish their location. Synonyms: mark, indicator, guiding light, signal, beacon, lodestar. 2.&nbsp;An event or discovery marking an important stage or turning point in something. Synonyms: milestone, watershed . . . major achievement. (“Landmark,” n.d., para. 1 &amp; 4)</p> <p>Dr. Monica White’s <em>Freedom Farmers: Agricultural Resistance and the Black Freedom Movement</em> stands literally as a landmark, ushering in a new era of community-based scholarship with and for agrarian justice. From here on out, scholars, activists, practitioners have a lodestar from which to research, practice, and advocate for food, farm, and racial justice: Dr. White’s framework of “collective agency and com­munity resilience” (CACR). Food studies scholars from across and beyond academic disciplines are in strong consensus as to the importance of this pivotal book—a manuscript that draws upon and advances rural sociology, history, agri-food studies, Black history, cooperative economics, and more. In this set of reflections on <em>Freedom Farmers,</em> McCutcheon lauds how the work is a “love letter” to past, present, and future Black farmers, and the powerful pedagogical potential of such celebration. Reese recounts how the book excavates the erased histories of Black women leaders and farmers, showing us how to “re/see the world” through this powerful lens. Babb calls the text a gift that “flips the script” to provide informative and inspirational narratives of food justice and food sovereignty in action. Hall commends how the book “pushes us to participate in the remaking of our communities with honesty, resilience, solidarity, and love.” Sarmiento notes how, even as the book critiques structural racism, it offers a generous, affirmative vision of resistance and agency. Wilson concurs that the book opens radical possibilities for hope, particularly in the classroom. I would also point readers to Cynthia Greenlee’s (2018) Civil Eats interview with Dr. White, which highlights how the book sheds light on the over­looked role of Black farmers in the Civil Rights movement, resurgence of Black agriculture and scholarship on it, and the ongoing necessity of affirming collective agency in the fight against racism at large. . . .</p> <p>- - - - - - - - - - -</p> <p><em><strong>A note from the authors:</strong> </em>Special thanks to West Virginia University's Food Justice Lab for first gathering us in 2018, and to WVU's Wilderness Geography Wild Food Lab. Thanks also to American University School of International Service for supporting the American Association of Geographer's 2019 Author-Meets-Colleagues Panel for Dr. White's book.</p> Garrett Graddy-Lovelace Priscilla McCutcheon Ashanté Reese Angela Babb Jonathan Hall Eric Sarmiento Eric Sarmiento Bradley Wilson Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 9 2 287 295 10.5304/jafscd.2020.092.020 Growing Ecologies: Growing Communities <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>The contemporary community gardening and urban agriculture movements have transformed the fundamental notion of the city, challenging the urban/rural dichotomy and applying an agronomic model to remake urban spaces as productive systems. Recently, another model has emerged, that of the food forest, which is based on the form and function of forest ecosystems for producing food. Much like the early innova-tive efforts of urban agriculture, community supported agriculture operations (CSAs), and other alternative food system projects, the emergence of food forests across the country has been a grassroots effort informed by a few key references and with little coordination across individual efforts.</p> <p><em>The Community Food Forest Handbook: How to Plan, Organize, and Nurture Edible Gathering Places</em> provides a very timely and thorough overview of this new type of productive landscape. Of the 30 food forest projects that form the basis of the book, only one has been in existence for more than 10 years. The authors, Catherine Bukowski, a Ph.D. candidate at Virginia Tech, and John Munsell, professor in the College of Natural Resources and the Environment at Virginia Tech, each with extensive experience in agroforestry, summarize the lessons learned from a systematic analysis of these examples to develop a guide for groups involved with or intending to develop their own community food forest. This handbook effectively documents the state-of-the-art of this emerging practice. . . .</p> Matthew Potteiger Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 9 2 283 285 10.5304/jafscd.2020.092.022