Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Expanding Food Agency Theory and Measurement with Mixed Methods <p>This qualitative strand of a mixed-methods study investigates the experiences of a group of low-income residents of color and university students from Philadelphia, in conjunction with the devel­opment of the Cooking and Food Provisioning Scale (CAFPAS). The CAFPAS is a tool for understanding and intervening in people’s ability to access and prepare food, an ability known as “food agency.” Qualitative data identified in this study reveal aspects of food agency not measured by the scale, such as the constraints of the physical environment and lack of money, or strategic provisioning to overcome barriers to access. Physical distance from food sources combined with income and time barriers makes procuring and preparing food difficult to achieve. Pro­visioning practices, such as strategic shopping and gardening, thus emerged as a means to mitigate such socioeconomic barriers to enacting food agency. Personal aspirations—to eat more healthfully, cook more skillfully, and have greater self-sufficiency—also emerged as an unexpectedly important way in which people related to their own food choices and actions. CAFPAS scores are perhaps best understood with accompanying contextual data to elucidate food agency in particular places and life circumstances. Likewise, a qualitative inquiry into food agency can be appropriately contextualized by connecting it to broader patterns in CAFPAS scores. For a full conception of food agency, if it is to be applied in community projects or policy decisions, we need to better understand individuals’ preferred actions and the place-based structures that either support or inhibit them.</p> Caitlin Morgan Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 9 4 1 16 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.016 Solidarity Policy in Defense of Life <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>The current Brazilian political situation together with the advance of coronavirus (COVID-19) has reinforced inequalities to food access in Brazil, generating uncertainties about satisfying basic human needs. Before the COVID-19 boom, Brazil had already been showing the effects of a long political and economic crisis, largely a result of the 2016 coup, which has led to more than 11% of the population unemployed and more than 40% in informal work.</p> <p>Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro’s statements have made explicit his denialist policy by prioritizing the economy over life. Bolsonaro’s government has ben undoing social security and food security poli­cies through the reform of the social security system, the dismantling of public universities, the shut­down of agrarian reform, the disassembling of food supply policies, and the end of the National Council for Food and Nutrition Security. Bolsonaro starts from an authoritarian policy, based on the neoliberal ideology and fear in which agribusiness and other large private corporations are prioritized rather than strengthening the collective alternatives that could help ensure a healthy diet for the Brazilian population. The COVID-19 pandemic, therefore, adds another societal stress factor, bringing back food insecurity and “the ghost of hunger” in Brazil.</p> Olívio Silva Filho Márcia Silva Copyright (c) 2020 Olívio Silva Filho, Márcia Silva 2020-07-09 2020-07-09 9 4 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.025 COVID-19 and Food Security in Bangladesh <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global health crisis, and the long-term impact of the pan­demic is predicted to reach far beyond today. In a lower-middle-income country with upward economic growth, such as Bangladesh, it is essential first to understand the present situation in order to create a proper recovery plan. Bangladesh has made significant progress in poverty reduction over the last two decades. Its poverty rate dropped to 23.2% in 2016 from 48.9% in 2000 (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics [BBS], 2018), which has also helped improve the country’s food security status. Bangladesh has made remarkable progress over the last few years (Roy, Dev, &amp; Sheheli, 2019) in most of the four dimensions of food security: food availability, food access, food utilization, and food stability. . . .</p> Debashish Dev Khondokar Kabir Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 4 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.008 Considering the Role of Life Cycle Analysis in Holistic Food Systems Research Policy and Practice <p>Researchers use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of foods, providing useful information to other researchers, policy-makers, consumers, and manufacturers. However, LCA is ill-equipped to account for desirable, often normatively valued, characteristics of food systems, such as redundancy, that could be considered more sustainable from a resilience perspective. LCA’s requirement of a functional unit also causes methodological bias favoring efficiency over resilience and other difficult-to-quantify properties. This efficiency bias results in favorable evaluations of conventional production techniques and plant-based foods since they typically have the lowest impacts per unit of output when compared to alternative agriculture systems and animal-based foods. Such research findings may drive policy-makers as well as consumers to prefer the more efficient options, with the possible outcome of diminishing resilience. This research and policy commentary explains why complementary assessment methodologies are necessary for comprehensive sustainability assessments that support researchers, policy-makers, and other relevant stakeholders in decision-making for food systems sustainability. In addition to LCA, researchers examining food systems sustainability issues should consider integrating other frameworks and methods such as life cycle sustainability assessments, sustainable materialism, backcasting and scenario building, and food systems assessments to help generate a holistic understanding of the systems being analyzed.</p> Andrew Berardy Thomas Seager Christine Costello Christopher Wharton Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 9 4 1 19 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.009 Episcopal Farmworker Ministry and Disaster Response to COVID-19 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Farmworkers in the U.S. confront numerous challenges. They receive poverty wages and have high rates of wage theft, precarious immigration status, and a high risk of injury and fatality (Smolski, 2019). They also face rampant food insecurity, with 40 to 70 percent of farm­workers experiencing a lack of reliable access to nutritious meals (Minkoff-Zern, 2014). Add to these challenges poor mental health from social isolation for guest workers who hold H2-A visas for agricultural work, the potential of working under dangerous and abusive conditions, and substandard housing. The general picture is of a workforce vulnerable to exploitation that does not receive the same benefits and protections as other workers due to agriculture’s exemption from many labor regulations. These challenges have been exacerbated by the current pandemic, which has hit farmworker communities particularly hard (North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services [NC DHHS], 2020; Wozniacka, 2020). . . .</p> Lariza Garzon Andrew Smolski Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-06-25 2020-06-25 9 4 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.002 Food Supply Pressure in France and Germany During COVID-19 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>The food supply has been disrupted by COVID-19. Shopping in supermarkets and grocery stores in the pandemic may not be a pleasant experience, as it can often lead to disappointment and anxiety since a lot of food items are not available or out of stock. The pandemic’s impact on the food supply has attracted attention from scholars and practitioners alike, and there have been many studies based on evidence from developing countries (e.g., Zurayk, 2020). However, there is still a lack of research based on the experiences of more developed and industrialized economies such as France and Germany. This is an important knowledge gap to be bridged, as people in developed countries tend to consume more food than those in developing countries (Delgado, 2003). Developed countries are also usually in the center of global food supply chains due to their stronger influence in trade. . . .</p> Suyu Liu Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-06-19 2020-06-19 9 4 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.007 "Informalization" of Food Vending in China <p>The central government of China required local governments to allow street food vending on May 27, 2020, which is essentially a policy of “informalization” in urban food governance. Before this, some local governments such as Nanjing Municipal Government had already relaxed the implementation of regulations for street food vending. The original purpose of allowing street food vending was to help ensure food security. Currently, it is used for increasing informal employment as a response to unemployment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The temporary informalization is important for mitigating food insecurity, which demonstrates China’s adaptability in contexts of crisis.</p> Taiyang Zhong Steffanie Scott Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-06-12 2020-06-12 9 4 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.006 Pathways to Revitalization of Indigenous Food Systems <p>The 2019 Canadian Food Guide (CFG) was launched in January 2019 with a promise to be inclusive of multicultural diets and diverse perspec­tives on food, including the food systems of Indigenous communities. Some scholars argue that federally designed standard food guides often fail to address the myriad and complex issues of food security, well-being, and nutritional needs of Canadian Indigenous communities while imposing a dominant and westernized worldview of food and nutrition. In a parallel development, Indige­nous food systems and associated knowledges and perspectives are being rediscovered as a hope and ways to improve current and future food security. Based on a review of relevant literature and our long-term collaborative learning and community-based research engagements with Indigenous com­munities from Manitoba, we propose that Indige­nous communities should develop their food guides considering their contexts, needs, and pref­erences. We discuss the scope and limitations of the most recent Canadian food guide and opportu­nities to decolonize it through Indigenous food guides, including their potential benefits in enhanc­ing food security and well-being for Indigenous communities. We propose to design and pilot test such Indigenous food guides in communities Fisher River Cree Nation in Manitoba as community-based case study research that supports Indigenous-led and community-based resurgence and decolonization of food guides.</p> Taylor Wilson Shailesh Shukla Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-06-12 2020-06-12 9 4 1 8 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.003 Economic Security Assessment of San Jorge, Samar, Philippines, as it Experiences Coronavirus <p class="JBodyText">This study assesses the economic security of the city of San Jorge, Samar, Philippines, in terms of livelihood, income, and health in order to analyze the extent of the effect of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on the populace. The study evaluates the responses provided by the government, private nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). It also looks at how people coped with the crisis during and after the community quarantine. Families received cash and food assistance from local government and other concerned INGOs, which was given to augment the expenses for food, health, and education of their children. The families coped with the food shortage by reducing the number of daily meals and by replacing rice in meals with root crops and vegetables.</p> Marcos Bollido Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-06-11 2020-06-11 9 4 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.005 Seeding the World <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>Debra Williby-Walker has a great story to tell, and it’s living under her roof in Mercer County, West Virginia. With her is eight-year-old Brady, her charismatic grandson, who has given away more than 6,000 packets of vegetable seeds to families around the world.</p> <p>Williby-Walker, 52, and Brady live in Oakvale, population fewer than 125, just a few miles west of a mountain range separating the Mountain State from far southern Virginia.</p> <p>“Brady learned to plant seeds around the age of two or three from his Poppy, my Dad, who has two big gardens that connect to my property. One is just for potatoes, and the other? My mom cans everything they grow. They feed all of us in the family." . . .</p> Rafael Alvarez Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-06-03 2020-06-03 9 4 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.001