Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> en-US <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> (Publisher and Editor in Chief: Duncan Hilchey) (Managing Editor: Amy Christian) Tue, 30 Apr 2019 05:51:53 -0700 OJS 60 CULTIVATING COMIDA: What Maria Exposed to Us <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>It has been nearly two years since Hurricane Maria unleased her fury on Puerto Rico, Dominica, and the U.S Virgin Islands in September 2017. Hurricane Maria caused an estimated US$94 billion in damages, with the majority of those damages reported in Puerto Rico (Mercy Corps, 2019). It is estimated that 2,975 Puerto Ricans lost their lives because of the hurricane, though the eventual death toll may have reached 4,000 (Mercy Corps, 2019). When Maria hit, the islands were still in recovery from Hurricane Irma, which had struck the north side of the main island just days before. The entirety of the archipelago, all 3.4 million resi­dents, lost power after Maria, and it was estimated that Puerto Ricans, on average, went 84 days without power, 68 days without water, and 41 days without cellular phone service (Mercy Corps, 2019). Overnight, Puerto Rico became discon­nected from the outside world. Prior to the 2017 hurricanes, Puerto Rico was already grappling with widespread poverty and a crumbling infrastructure after years of disinvestment and structural adjust­ment.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>&nbsp;These inequalities left Puerto Ricans with a host of challenges related to their wellbeing. For instance, according to the <a href="">National Resources Defense Council</a>, in 2015, 99.5% of Puerto Ricans were served by community water systems that violated the Safe Drinking Water Act (NRDC, 2017). Before Maria, 1.5 million Puerto Ricans were <a href="">food insecure</a>, with children experiencing food insecurity at a rate of 56%—triple the U.S. average (Bread for the World, 2019).</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> Structural adjustment refers to the delivery and administration of loans to states or regions in economic crisis, often loaned by institutions like the World Bank or International Monetary Fund. These loans are given on the condition of economic reforms. Structural adjustment is widely critiqued as a mechanism that deepens poverty and increases dependency.</p> Teresa M. Mares ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 What Makes Food Policies Happen? Insights from Portuguese Initiatives <p>Two key questions addressed in the current study are why urban agriculture and food initiatives in Portugal take so long to materialize, and why existing initiatives don’t scale up from projects to policies. We argue that existing initia­tives are mainly carried out as linear processes and have quite limited long-term political commitment. We carried out in-depth interviews with key informants involved in formulating the four initiatives examined. Findings suggest that political commitment and funding are critical points explaining why urban agriculture and food initiatives take so long to materialize in Portugal. These findings align with the conclusions of the recent reports from IPES-Food (Hawkes &amp; Halliday, 2017) and ICLEI-RUAF (Dubbeling, 2013) on what makes food policy happen. In-depth interviews with key informants highlight additional <strong>constraints,</strong> notably the lack of several important facilitating tools such as <strong>monitoring and assessment of initiatives; strong vertical multilevel governance</strong> and <strong>horizontal city-based governance;</strong> and <strong>significant participatory processes for project implementation and policy formulation.</strong> Based on the results obtained so far, we conclude that the constraints found in Portugal come mostly from governance-related issues. Therefore, changes can only happen under a supportive policy at the national level and a facilitating legal system based on vertical and horizontal multilevel governance, strong political commitment, and a national awareness campaign among all the food systems actors. A national platform able to gather relevant data and assess and monitor ongoing initiatives may be the key step to assembling different stakeholders who can advocate and then lead to higher political commitment in Portugal.</p> Cecília Delgado ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Food System Solutions to Address Food Security and Local Economic Development: The Case of Food Hubs in the Northeastern United States <p class="JBodyText">Socioeconomic inequalities and natural resource exploitation reflect the limitations of how the current food system functions. Global and local conceptual categories are used to describe two alternatives that are shaping the way food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed. In the United States, food hubs are seen as a model that is able to scale up local and regional food systems in the face of the negative consequences generated by the dominant globally oriented system. Although food security and economic development are the main desirable outcomes for any food system initiative, not much research has been done about how food hubs contribute to these two interrelated key issues. In this study, the research questions have been narrowed down by taking into account the four dimensions through which food security is commonly framed (availability, access, utilization, and stability) and the seven drivers of the community wealth building approach to economic development (ownership, place, multipliers, collaboration, inclusion, workforce, and system). Seven food hubs operating in the Northeastern U.S. were surveyed. Qualitative information was collected about their activities in accordance with the dimensions and drivers included in the adopted conceptual framework. The results suggested that food hubs that operate as business incubators and food processing facilities are involved in several wealth building strategies. Nonetheless, food hubs cannot generally be considered a stand-alone policy to increase food access for underserved social groups.</p> Cesare Cascella ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Out of Our Silos, Into the Movement: Community Food Systems and Cooperative Extension in Oregon <p>Oregon has a vibrant community food systems (CFS) movement, which has grown from a few key actors and organizations two decades ago to an increasingly organized, statewide network of more than 50 organizations working on the full span of food system challenges. These diverse organizations have endorsed a common vision: “All Oregonians thrive with healthy, affordable foods from an environmentally and economically resil­ient, regional food system.” The CFS movement aims to expand Oregon’s sustainable agriculture and local and regional food sectors in ways that address the state’s chronic challenges with food insecurity and inequita­ble access to healthy food. Analysts have described Cooperative Extension’s potential and actual contribu­tions to local, regional, and community food system development. Because many Extension personnel feel limited in their ability to work toward transforming the food system, researchers suggest partnering with external organizations with a similar understanding of food system problems and possible solutions. As those partners develop their own theories of food system change and strategic paths forward, Extension can use these to organize its own CFS goals and strategies. I demonstrate that this is well underway in Oregon.</p> Lauren Gwin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Telling a New Story: Working Together to Build Place-based Food Systems in the Palouse-Clearwater Region of the U.S. Inland Northwest <p>From early adopters and the first stirrings of cultural change to development of a thriving local foods culture and economy, the Palouse-Clearwater region of southeastern Washington and north central Idaho has seen remarkable place-based food-system development through decades of hard work by a broad variety of players. These place-based food systems have arisen from a combination of individual entrepreneurism, organizational leadership, partnerships, and synergistic relationships across communities and the larger region. Founded on value-based relationships and a shared vision of the future, the local food narratives that have emerged during the development process have framed and shaped the character of these food systems and their expansion over time. . . .</p> Colette DePhelps, Soren Newman, Darin Saul ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 The Political and Legislative History that Underlies the Farm Bill <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In <em>The Fault Lines of Farm Policy,</em> Jonathan Coppess explores the evolution of the farm bill through the political and congressional interests representing the United States’ three main com­modity production regions: the South, the Mid­west, and the Great Plains. Coppess combines analysis of his direct involvement in the legislative and executive branches’ farm bills in 2008 and 2014 with exten­sive historical, contemporary political, and legisla­tive analyses in his current academic role. Coppess served in the U.S. Senate and at the U.S. Depart­ment of Agriculture (USDA) from 2006 to 2013. These rich descriptions explain the underpinnings of congressional efforts and identify the drivers of American farm policy development. . . .</p> Sheila Fleischhacker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Jul 2019 08:49:42 -0700 The Capitalist Diet: Energy-dense and Profitable <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p><em>The Neoliberal Diet: Healthy Profits, Unhealthy People</em> analyzes how global diets have changed in recent decades, what caused these changes, and who loses and gains by the transformation. Author Gerardo Otero is a professor of international studies at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada, and the author of several previous books on the global food system. In the book, Otero describes how the global diet that emerged at the turn of the 21<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;century has contributed to world­wide increases in overweight and obesity and how neoliberalism, the variant of capitalism that evolved in this period, promotes obesogenic diets.</p> <p>Neoliberalism posits that markets are best equipped to solve all problems and that by deregulating, privatizing, and emphasizing individual responsibility, governments can unleash capitalist economies for growth (Harvey, 2007). Harvey describes neoliberalism as the corporate capitalist class’s political response to the threats to their control that emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s. . . .</p> Nicholas Freudenberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Why Place-Based Food Systems? Food Security in a Chaotic World <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Techno-industrial society is founded on a ‘socially constructed’ myth of perpetual economic growth propelled by the cult of efficiency, expanding trade, and continuous technological progress. But this neoliberal vision has resulted in an increasingly unsustainable entanglement of nations in a world compromised by ecological overshoot. Today, many countries are dependent on others for critical resources, including food, even as population growth and increased consumption deplete and pollute the ecosystems essential for human survival. Climate change and energy uncertainty further threaten trade-dependent populations. Indeed, societal collapse is a growing possibility. The future food security of cities—or any size of human settlement—lies in greater regional self-reliance, particularly through the protection of arable land and the re-localization of both primary agriculture and food processing. . . .</p> William E. Rees ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0700 The Farmers Market Metrics Project: A Research Brief on Scalable Data Collection in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metro <p>Maintaining funding for local and regional food system initiatives requires reliable data to demon­strate their impacts. Data that are specific to farm­ers markets in a localized context are not readily available. The Farmers Market Metrics Project is a three-way partnership between farmers markets, local government, and a university to elevate the capacity of the markets in the Minneapolis–St. Paul Metro region through regionally collected metrics to quantify their presence in the regional food system. In this research brief, we introduce the FM360 data collection method being developed by the project, which is scalable across geographic areas. Scalability is critical to making the data collection process adaptable and effective in cases involving multiple data sources and when flexibility is needed in defining the food system parameters to satisfy partners and prospective funders.</p> Hikaru Hanawa Peterson, Joseph J. Nowak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 16 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Wilde’s Textbook Covers the Fundamentals of Food System Policy <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>Many of us who are interested in food systems reach a point in our learning journey where we realize that our government is involved in nearly every aspect of the food system. Whether you are passionate about nutrition, food justice, or climate change, you can bet there is at least one government regulation or program that signifi­cantly affects that issue. Parke Wilde’s second edition of <em>Food Policy in the United States: An Intro­duction</em> is a comprehensive guide perfect for the graduate or undergraduate student who needs to understand the policy-making world. The book is not too different from the first edition, aside from updates based on recent policy changes in sources like the 2014 farm bill and the <em>Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020.</em></p> <p>The textbook does its best to cover every major food policy topic from “farm to fork.” Before he begins, Wilde uses Chapter 1 to give the reader a crash course in the legislative process and some basic economic terminology, like “external­ities.” He also takes the time to explain that this textbook is written from a public-interest perspec­tive and that the book tackles questions about both how policies <em>should </em>be made and how policies are <em>actually </em>made.</p> Michael Zastoupil ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0700